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Diabetes

All You Need To Know About Diabetes!

What Is Diabetes?

Diabetes or elevated blood sugar level is a metabolic disorder in which the metabolism of carbohydrates is disturbed. The carbohydrate consumed from the food is not metabolized and therefore it leads to abnormal levels of glucose in the blood. Our food consists of carbohydrates which when consumed are converted into glucose by our body. This glucose is needed by the body cells for energy. Our pancreas has cells that get activated when glucose enters in blood. These cells secrete a hormone called insulin that helps the cells to take up the glucose and maintain normal glucose levels in the blood. In diabetes either this insulin is not secreted or is secreted in a very small amount. Also, there could be an insulin sensitivity in which insulin is secreted but the cells do not respond to this insulin.

What Are The Symptoms Of Diabetes?

Diabetes is a chronic disease in which the blood sugar level is persistently elevated over the years. Some tests are done to diagnose diabetes but there are certain signs and symptoms present that reflects diabetes, these include,

  • Excessive thirst
  • Excessive urination
  • Weight loss (type 1 diabetes)
  • Weight gain (type 2 diabetes)
  • Increased hunger
  • Fatigue

Types Of Diabetes

Prediabetes: a condition of slightly elevated blood sugar but not diagnosed as diabetes

Diabetes type 1: Insulin-dependent diabetes in which the body fails to produce the insulin

Diabetes type 2: Insulin independent diabetes in which there is little or insufficient secretion of insulin.

Gestational diabetes: Elevated blood sugar levels during pregnancy. It is often temporary and goes away with pregnancy.

Difference between Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes Type 2 Diabetes
Insulin-dependent (no insulin produced) Insulin Independent (Little or insufficient insulin produced)
Occurs below 20 years of age Occurs after 40 years of age
Characterized by weight loss Characterized by weight gain
Ketone bodies formed No ketone bodies
Requires external insulin No need for external insulin
Less common More common

What Is The Cause Of Diabetes?

There could be several reasons for diabetes. Type 1 diabetes which is less common is an autoimmune disorder in which the body’s immune system destroys its own cells called beta cells that are responsible for insulin production. Therefore no insulin is produced. On the other hand type 2 diabetes in which insulin is produced but cells resist it, is because of either excessive carbohydrate intake over a period of years, obesity, physical inactivity, or family history of diabetes.

How To Diagnose Diabetes?

Test Cut off value How the test is performed
HBA1C >6.5% Measures the blood sugar levels over a period of 2-3 months
Fasting plasma blood glucose >126 mg/dl No food or drink for at least 8 hours before the test
Oral glucose tolerance test >200 mg/dl Fasting for 8 hours and then drinking sugary drink to check how the body reacts to it
Random plasma glucose test >200 mg/dl At any time of the day, no need to fast

 

How To Manage Diabetes?

Here’s what you need to do in order to control your diabetes.

Avoid eating simple sugars (in processed foods)

Consume complex carbs such as whole grains

Be physically active and watch your weight (exercise for at least 30 min daily)

Keep a record of your blood sugar levels

Avoid sweets and sweetened beverages

Avoid starchy vegetables such as potatoes, carrots, sweet potatoes

Avoid rice and consume brown rice only if needed

Consume small frequent meals and avoid eating too much at once.

Avoid the combination of rice and potatoes

Avoid saturated fats such as ghee

Control the portion size of fruits and avoid bananas, mangoes, watermelon.

References

https://www.healthline.com/health/difference-between-type-1-and-type-2-diabetes#:~:text=People%20with%20type%201%20diabetes,as%20having%20a%20broken%20key.

https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/basics/getting-tested.html

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